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Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

  1. Larry C. Petersonf
  1. aDepartment of Earth Sciences, Downing Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, CB2 3EQ;
  2. bDepartment of Earth Sciences and Godwin Laboratory for Palaeoclimate Research, Downing Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, CB2 3EQ;
  3. cDepartment of Geological Sciences and Land Use and Environmental Change Institute, P.O. Box 112120, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611;
  4. dDepartment of Geological Sciences, P.O. Box 112120, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611;
  5. eDepartment of Anthropology, 1126 East 59th Street, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637; and
  6. fRosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, University of Miami, Miami, FL, 33149
  1. Edited by Mark H Thiemens, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, and approved November 22, 2011 (received for review July 15, 2011)

  1. Fig. 1.

    (A) Map of Cambodia. Location of Angkor is indicated by a triangle. The box outlines the location of the satellite image. (B) False-color satellite image of the greater Angkor area and the north shore of Tonle Sap Lake. Angkor Wat is indicated by the triangle. The dashed line marks the location of feature CP 807. (C) Close up of the West Baray. The circle indicates the location of cores WB1-20-XII-03 MWI-1 and MWI-2, and the location of the West Mebon is indicated. Satellite image obtained by ASTER on 17 February 2004 and accessed from NASA Visible Earth.

  2. Fig. 2.

    Summary diagram comparing geochemical and physical variables in Core WB1-20-XII-03 MWI-1 with Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) reconstruction from the Vietnam tree ring record (B) (12). Interval mean linear sedimentation rates (mm?yr-1) (based on calibrated 14C ages) are noted on the age-depth plot (A). Squares represent weighted mean of calibrated bulk sediment dates and the circle signifies the weighted mean of a calibrated wood date. Error bars indicate full range of possible calendar year solutions for each radiocarbon date. The shaded boxes highlight the different time periods for which linear sedimentation and mass accumulation rates were calculated. Light gray shading in panels BI indicate the Angkor Droughts (1345–1365, 1401–1425) as defined by Buckley et al. (12), and darker gray shading indicates other drought episodes, including the 13th century drought (12) and the Strange Parallels (1756–1768) and East India (1792–1796) droughts, as defined by Cook et al. (15). Data points acquired within the condensed section of the core (indicated in top panel) are shown as individual points. wt% C and C/N for the last approximately 300 y of the record were measured on core WB1-20-XII-03 MWI-2 (D, E). For scanning XRF factor analysis, element ratios represented are listed from strongest to weakest loading, with parentheses denoting a negative loading. The percent total variance explained by each factor is indicated (G, H). The approximate ranges of the MCA and LIA are marked by gray bars.

  3. Fig. 3.

    Carbon (A) and nitrogen (B) stable isotopes, total P (C), and biogenic silica (D) from core WB1-20-XII-03 MWI-1, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) record (E) from Buckley et al. (12). Drought periods are indicated by shading. LIA and MCA are indicated by gray bars.

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