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The El Ni?o–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)–pandemic Influenza connection: Coincident or causal?

  1. Marc Lipsitchb
  1. aDepartment of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032; and
  2. bCenter for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115
  1. Edited by Rita R. Colwell, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, and approved September 19, 2011 (received for review May 26, 2011)

  1. Fig. 2.

    Plots of NDJ SST anomalies for the NDJ period preceding each of the last four pandemics. (A) November 1917 to January 1918. (B) November 1956 to January 1957. (C) November 1967 to January 1968. (D) November 2008 to January 2009. SST anomalies are a statistically homogeneous concatenation of two SST reconstructions (13, 31).

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