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Amazon plant diversity revealed by a taxonomically verified species list

  1. Rafaela Campostrini Forzzao
  1. aNational Institute of Science and Technology in Interdisciplinary and Transdisciplinary Studies in Ecology and Evolution (INCT IN-TREE), Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA, Brazil;
  2. bRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH5 3LR, United Kingdom;
  3. cNational Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0163;
  4. dDepartamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, 45662-900 Ilhéus, BA, Brazil;
  5. ePrivate address, 13083-290 Campinas, SP, Brazil;
  6. fDepartamento de Química y Biología, Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, Colombia;
  7. gHerbario Nacional Colombiano (COL), Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia;
  8. hInstitute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126;
  9. iDepartamento de Botanica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC, Brazil;
  10. jInstituto de Ciências e Tecnologia das águas & Herbário HSTM, Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, 68040-050 Santarém, PA, Brazil;
  11. kCampus do Centro Politécnico, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 8531-970 Curitiba, PR, Brazil;
  12. lEmbrapa Clima Temperado, 96010-971 Pelotas, RS, Brazil;
  13. mPrograma de Pós-Gradua??o em Botanica, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botanica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil;
  14. nDepartment of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom;
  15. oJardim Botanico do Rio de Janeiro, 222460-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil;
  16. pPrograma de Pós-Gradua??o em Botanica, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, 44036-900 Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil;
  17. qDepartment of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Lavras, 37200-000 Lavras, MG, Brazil;
  18. rDepartamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de S?o Paulo, 05508-090 S?o Paulo, SP, Brazil;
  19. sInstituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botanica, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”,13506-900 Rio Claro, SP, Brazil;
  20. tRoyal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom;
  21. uReal Jardín Botánico, RJB-CSIC, 28014 Madrid, Spain;
  22. vFacultad de Ciencias Naturales y Matemáticas Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá, Colombia;
  23. wDepartamento de Biologia Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil;
  24. xDepartamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal de S?o Jo?o del-Rei, 36301-160 S?o Jo?o del-Rei, MG, Brazil;
  25. yDepartamento de Botanica, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil;
  26. zMissouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO 63166-0299;
  27. aaDepartamento de Botanica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-590 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil;
  28. bbMuseu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, 66077-830 Belém, PA, Brazil;
  29. ccDepartment of Biodiversity, National Institute of Amazonian Research, 69060-001 Manaus, AM, Brazil
  1. Edited by Michael J. Donoghue, Yale University, New Haven, CT, and approved August 11, 2017 (received for review April 24, 2017)

  1. Fig. S1.

    Species-rich seed plant families and genera recorded in lowland Amazon rain forests. The 20 most species-rich families (A) and genera (B) of the entire flora, and the 20 most-species rich families (C) and genera (D) for trees only.

  2. Fig. 2.

    Biologically meaningful delineation of the lowland rain forest biome across Amazonia (light-green outline). Areas >1,000 m elevation are shown in black (http://www.danielhellerman.com/srtm/), major rivers are shown by light-blue lines, and the Amazon watershed itself is outlined with a dark-blue dotted line. Areas with >90% tree canopy cover are shown in green based on satellite data from 2000 (45). Our delineation (purple line) was derived by visualizing areas within the multiple watersheds ≤1,000 m elevation that have >1,300 mm annual mean rainfall [slightly below the threshold of Malhi et al. (46)], 18 °C minimum and 24 °C maximum annual mean temperature (lower limit follows the Koppen classification for tropical forests), and climatic water balance (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration) >0 throughout the year. The northern limit shows complexity, with multiple excluded areas around the tepuis due to high elevation and/or low annual mean rainfall. Large areas highlighted in white, notably in northern Bolivia (Beni savanna/llanos de Moxos) and in the border area of Venezuela, Guyana, and Brazil (Guianan savannas), are excluded due to higher annual mean temperatures (>24 °C). Climatic data were obtained from ref. 47.

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