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Three-dimensional mesostructures as high-temperature growth templates, electronic cellular scaffolds, and self-propelled microrobots

  1. John A. Rogersk,t,u,v,w,x,y,2
  1. aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211;
  2. bDepartment of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211;
  3. cDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;
  4. dFrederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;
  5. eNational Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People’s Republic of China;
  6. fCenter for Mechanics and Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People’s Republic of China;
  7. gCenter for Flexible Electronics Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People’s Republic of China;
  8. hApplied Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People’s Republic of China;
  9. iState Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016, People’s Republic of China;
  10. jSchool of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;
  11. kDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208;
  12. lDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109;
  13. mBeckman Institute of Advanced Science and Technology, Quantitative Light Imaging Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;
  14. nDepartment of Materials Science and NanoEngineering, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005;
  15. oDepartment of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;
  16. pSchool of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea;
  17. qInstitute of Advanced Structure Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, People’s Republic of China;
  18. rBeijing Key Laboratory of Lightweight Multi-Functional Composite Materials and Structures, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, People’s Republic of China;
  19. sDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208;
  20. tDepartment of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208;
  21. uDepartment of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208;
  22. vDepartment of Neurological Surgery, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208;
  23. wDepartment of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208;
  24. xDepartment of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208;
  25. yCenter for Bio-Integrated Electronics, Simpson Querrey Institute for BioNanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208
  1. Contributed by John A. Rogers, September 29, 2017 (sent for review August 7, 2017; reviewed by Firat Guder and Glaucio H. H. Paulino)

  1. Fig. 2.

    Transfer printing of 3D mesostructures and hierarchical geometries. (A) Schematic illustration of the method for a representative case of a multilayer, nested cage structure (i) forming of a 3D mesostructure (yellow) on an elastomeric substrate (blue) with thin, sacrificial layers of Al2O3 (bright red) between the bonding sites and the elastomer, (ii) applying wax to encapsulate and confine the mesostructure to hold its shape after release from the elastomer by immersion in HCl to eliminate the Al2O3, (iii) transfer printing of wax-encapsulated 3D mesostructure onto a target substrate (gray) coated with an adhesive layer (brown), and (iv) dissolving the wax to complete the process. (BD) Optical micrographs, SEM images, and FEA results (insets on the right top) of a trilayer nested cage of silicon on quartz (B), triangular kirigami array of epoxy on copper foil (C), and 3 × 4 double-floor helices of gold–polyimide bilayers on a silicon wafer (D). (E and F) Optical images of 3D mesostructures on biological substrates, including a jellyfish-like structure on the leaf of a butterfly orchid (E), and a table-tent mixed array on piece of chicken breast (F). (G) Experimental images and FEA results of a hierarchical mesostructure enabled by transfer printing of first-generation 3D mesostructures (spiral cages and tables) onto a 2D precursor to another cycle of 3D assembly (to yield a box). (Scale bars, 500 μm.)

  2. Fig. 3.

    Three-dimensional mesostructures as templates for growth of functional materials at high temperatures. (A) Schematic illustration of the process of guided solidification of AgCl–KCl eutectic structures onto 3D cages of Si–SiO2 bilayers on quartz. (B) Optical image of a 3D cage of Si–SiO2 bilayers on quartz annealed in air for 3 h at 600 °C. (C and D) SEM images of the cage with solidified AgCl–KCl eutectic and magnified views of periodical lamellar structures. (E) SEM images of a ribbon component of the cage covered with solidified eutectic material (Left) and corresponding high-magnification views from the top center (red), bottom center (blue), bottom left (yellow), and bottom right (green) of the ribbon. (F) Heat-transfer and phase-field modeling of the solidification of AgCl–KCl eutectic features on one 3D ribbon, including the thermal profile (left frame) and simulated AgCl–KCl structures (right four frames) that correspond to SEM images above. The dark black line in the left frame represents the solidification front. (G) Schematic illustration of the CVD growth of atomic layers of WSe2 on 3D structures of SiO2 on a silicon wafer. (H) SEM image of a 3D structure after CVD growth of WSe2. (I) Raman spectra and PL spectra of WSe2 on a 3D structure.

  3. Fig. 4.

    Three-dimensional electronic scaffolds for engineered DRG neural networks. (A) Schematic illustration of rat DRG and the cell populations within them (Left), as cultured on 3D mesostructures (Right). (B) Confocal fluorescence micrographs immunostained with antiMAP2 (neurons, red), and antiGFAP (glia, green), and corresponding phase-contrast micrographs of DRG cells cultured on a 3D bilayer cage on a glass slide. (C) Schematic illustrate of the setup for GLIM imaging. “P” stands for polarizer and “NP” stands for Nomarski prism. (D) In situ observation of the migration of a DRG cell on a 3D ribbon. (E) Amira 3D rendering of interribbon DRG cell formations observed via GLIM. (F) Schematic illustration and optical image of a 3D cage with eight integrated and separately addressable electrodes for stimulation and recording. (Insets) Schematic illustration and SEM image of a representative electrode. (G) Impedance and phase measurements of these electrodes evaluated in cell culture medium. (H) Ferrocenecarboxylic acid oxidation test of the electrodes before and after protein treatment. (I) Extracellular action potential stimulation and recording of DRG neurons on 3D electrodes: data collected from one 3D electrode before (Top Left) and after electrical stimulation (Bottom Left), and magnified view of one spike (Right). (Scale bars, 100 μm.)

  4. Fig. 5.

    Three-dimensional microswimmers with controlled motion modes and trajectories. (A and B) Schematic illustrations, SEM images, and superimposed images of microswimmers designed for linear motion (A) and curvilinear motion (B). (Scale bars, 500 μm.) (C and D) Three-dimensional and top views of the trajectories and configurations of microswimmers predicted by multibody dynamics modeling.

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