• Call for Social Sciences Papers
  • Science Sessions: The PNAS Podcast Program

In This Issue

Neanderthal and modern human noses

3D reconstruction of Neanderthal skulls based on CT scans. Image courtesy of A. Balzeau (Musée de l’Homme, Paris, France).

Both Neanderthals and modern humans settled in cold, dry Eurasian environments. This development may have required adaptations in internal nasal anatomy that facilitated warming and humidification of air before it reached the lungs, but a lack of soft-tissue evidence in the Neanderthal fossil record has made confirming this hypothesis difficult. S. de Azevedo et al. (pp. 12442–12447) analyzed nasal morphologies of 38 Argentineans—26 of southwestern European (SWE) ancestry and 12 recent northeastern Asian (NEA) migrants—and two fossil Neanderthals. The authors determined the main differences in nasal bone morphology between Neanderthals and modern humans, enabling inference and digital reconstruction of the Neanderthal nasal soft tissue. The authors used computational fluid dynamics to simulate breathing in Neanderthals, SWE modern humans, and NEA modern humans. Air warming and humidifying was most rapid in the NEA model, due to significantly longer fluid residence times compared with the other models. Air warming and humidifying was also more rapid in the Neanderthal model than in the SWE model. …

Online Impact

    <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark>
    <font id="UPyyYwe"><strike id="UPyyYwe"><nobr id="UPyyYwe"></nobr></strike></font><font id="UPyyYwe"><ruby id="UPyyYwe"></ruby></font>
    <dfn id="UPyyYwe"></dfn><dfn id="UPyyYwe"><ruby id="UPyyYwe"><noframes id="UPyyYwe">
    <font id="UPyyYwe"><ruby id="UPyyYwe"></ruby></font>
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"></dl></mark>
    <dfn id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"></dl></dfn>
    <font id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"><noframes id="UPyyYwe">
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark>
    <font id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"></dl></font>
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark><dfn id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"><noframes id="UPyyYwe">
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark>
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark>
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark>
    <dfn id="UPyyYwe"></dfn> <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark>
    <font id="UPyyYwe"><strike id="UPyyYwe"></strike></font><dfn id="UPyyYwe"></dfn>
    <font id="UPyyYwe"></font><font id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"><sub id="UPyyYwe"></sub></dl></font><dfn id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"></dl></dfn>
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark>
    <dfn id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"><noframes id="UPyyYwe">
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"></mark>
    <mark id="UPyyYwe"><dl id="UPyyYwe"><sub id="UPyyYwe"></sub></dl></mark>
    <font id="UPyyYwe"><ruby id="UPyyYwe"></ruby></font>
    <font id="UPyyYwe"></font><dfn id="UPyyYwe"></dfn>
  • 975701304 2018-02-20
  • 619701303 2018-02-20
  • 6291841302 2018-02-20
  • 8182271301 2018-02-20
  • 7717531300 2018-02-20
  • 2811781299 2018-02-20
  • 9132041298 2018-02-20
  • 285331297 2018-02-20
  • 2838721296 2018-02-20
  • 274321295 2018-02-20
  • 2027431294 2018-02-20
  • 2738641293 2018-02-20
  • 9584601292 2018-02-20
  • 9002021291 2018-02-20
  • 7995901290 2018-02-20
  • 8428311289 2018-02-20
  • 8479981288 2018-02-19
  • 4088241287 2018-02-19
  • 6348191286 2018-02-19
  • 4338491285 2018-02-19