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Early Neolithic wine of Georgia in the South Caucasus

  1. David Lordkipanidzeb,1
  1. aBiomolecular Archaeology Project, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA 19104;
  2. bGeorgian National Museum, Tbilisi 0159, Georgia;
  3. cDepartment of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada MSS 1A1;
  4. dDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725;
  5. eScientific Research Center of Agriculture, Tbilisi 0159, Georgia;
  6. fInstitut des Sciences de l’Evolution, University of Montpellier, 34090 Montpellier, France;
  7. gDepartment of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Università degli studi di Milano, 20122 Milan, Italy;
  8. hLombardy Museum of Agricultural History, 26866 Sant’Angelo Lodigiano, Italy;
  9. iDangoor Research Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (D-REAMS) Laboratory, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel;
  10. jInstitut National de la Recherche Agronomique–Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement–Centre International d’études Supérieures en Sciences Agronomiques, UMR Amélioration Génétique et Adaptation des Plantes, 1334, 34398 Montpellier, France;
  11. kCentre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark
  1. Contributed by David Lordkipanidze, October 7, 2017 (sent for review August 22, 2017; reviewed by A. Nigel Goring-Morris and Roald Hoffmann)

  1. Fig. 2.

    (A) Representative early Neolithic jar from Khramis Didi-Gora (field no. XXI-60, building no. 63; depth, ?5.45 to ?6.25 m). (B) Jar base SG-16a, interior and cross-section. (C) Jar base SG-782, exterior. Note the textile impression on the base. (D) Jar base GG-IV-50, interior. (Photographs by Mindia Jalabadze and courtesy of the National Museum of Georgia.)

  2. Fig. 3.

    Extracted ion chromatograms (±0.005-Da window) for 5 μM standard solutions (A), using the theoretical mass of deprotonated tartaric, malic, succinic, and citric acid, compared with jar sherd sample GG-IV-50 (B). All four organic acids were positively detected and quantified in this sample. Intens, intensity.

  3. Fig. 4.

    Organic acid distribution for the LC-MS-MS–analyzed ancient jar base samples that were positive for tartaric acid/tartrate at Gadachrili Gora, compared with their associated soil samples. Concentrations are reported as nanograms of organic acid per milligram of extracted residue from sherd/soil material, and errors as the SD of two measurements. Note that the GG-II-9 samples (Table 1) are omitted from this graphical representation, because their data were reported as nanograms of organic acid per gram of extracted sherd/soil material.

  4. Fig. 5.

    Organic acid distribution for the LC-MS-MS–analyzed ancient jar base samples that were positive for tartaric acid/tartrate at Shulaveris Gora, compared with their associated soil samples. Concentrations are reported as nanograms of organic acid per milligram of extracted residue from sherd/soil material, and errors as the SD of two measurements.

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