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Kinematics of flagellar swimming in Euglena gracilis: Helical trajectories and flagellar shapes

Supporting Information

  • Download Supporting Information (PDF)
  • Download Movie_S01 (AVI) - Montage of video recordings of swimming E. gracilis observed under a microscope (at increasing magnification and image-acquisition rate). At time scales larger than the flagellar beating period cells can be observed moving on a helical path while rotating about a fixed axis. At smaller time scales, finer features of the rototraslatory motion appear.
  • Download Movie_S02 (AVI) - Reconstructed swimming kinematics of E. gracilis. The resulting trajectory of the cell can be seen as a smooth circular helix (the “backbone” trajectory), perturbed by periodic “swirls” at the flagellar beating time scale. The cell completes one turn of the helix while undergoing a full rotation around the axis of the helix. The Euglena’s body is not to scale with the displacements for visualization purposes.
  • Download Movie_S03 (AVI) - Flagellar shape reconstruction. We exploit the slow (incremental) rotational motion of the Euglena around the axis of its helical trajectory. As the Euglena rotates, at instants one beating period Tb apart, different views of the same flagellar configuration are exposed. This permits an algorithmic stereo matching reconstruction of the intrabeat flagellar shapes.
  • Download Movie_S04 (AVI) - Variability of the flagellar beat among different observations. The reconstructed 3D flagellar shape of Cell1a* (green), conveniently scaled in both space and time, is superimposed (blue) on image data from the other five datasets. The good overlap suggests the existence of a distinctive Euglena beat style.
  • Download Movie_S05 (AVI) - Comparison between flagellar shapes, during one beat, and the resulting translational and angular velocities (represented in the cell body reference frame coordinates).
  • Download Movie_S06 (AVI) - Video summary. Reconstruction of the 3D kinematics of euglenoid flagellar swimming, starting from high-resolution 2D image recordings.

Online Impact

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