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Speaker gaze increases information coupling between infant and adult brains

  1. Sam Wassd
  1. aDepartment of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EB, United Kingdom;
  2. bDivision of Psychology, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637332, Republic of Singapore;
  3. cMRC Cognition & Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 7EF, United Kingdom;
  4. dDivision of Psychology, University of East London, London E16 2RD, United Kingdom
  1. Edited by Uri Hasson, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, and accepted by Editorial Board Member Marlene Behrmann November 2, 2017 (received for review February 15, 2017)

  1. Fig. 2.

    (Left) Network depiction of experiment 1 Theta (3–6 Hz, Top) and Alpha (6–9 Hz, Bottom) connectivity, plotting GPDC values for direct (Left), indirect (Middle), and direct-oblique gaze (Right) conditions. Nodes represent C3 (L) and C4 (R) electrodes for adult (A) and infant (I). Arrows indicate the direction and strength of connectivity (higher GPDC value, thicker arrow). Connections that do not significantly exceed the surrogate threshold are excluded. (Right) Grand mean GPDC values averaged across all adult-to-infant (A → I) connections for Theta (Top) and Alpha (Bottom) in direct (D), indirect (I), and direct-oblique (D-O) gaze conditions. Error bars show the SEM. *P < 0.05.

  2. Fig. 3.

    (Left) Network depiction of experiment 2 Theta (3–6 Hz, Top) and Alpha (6–9 Hz, Bottom) connectivity, plotting GPDC values for direct (Left) and indirect (Right) gaze conditions. Nodes represent C3 (L) and C4 (R) electrodes for adult (A) and infant (I). Arrows indicate the direction and strength of connectivity (higher GPDC value, thicker arrow). Connections that do not significantly exceed the surrogate threshold are excluded. (Right) Grand mean GPDC values averaged across all adult-to-infant (A → I, Left) and infant-to-adult (I → A, Right) connections for Theta (Top) and Alpha (Bottom) in direct (D) and indirect (I) gaze conditions. Error bars show the SEM. *P < 0.05.

  3. Fig. 4.

    Scatterplots showing the correlation between (n = 19) individual infants’ mean infant-to-adult GPDC value (averaged across Theta and Alpha bands, x axis), and their vocalization duration (y axis) in experiment 2. Left and Right show direct and indirect gaze conditions, respectively. *P < 0.05 (Benjamini–Hochberg FDR corrected).

  4. Fig. 5.

    Experiment 1 infant scalp topography of the mean adult (C3/C4)-to-infant GPDC values for direct gaze (Left), indirect gaze (Middle), and direct-oblique gaze (Right) conditions, for Theta (Top) and Alpha (Bottom) frequency bands. Electrodes C3 and C4 are enlarged for ease of reference. For each subplot, a top–down view of the scalp is shown where left/right map congruently to left/right sides of the infant’s head, respectively.

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