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Licenses for PNAS Articles

PNAS articles are published under a variety of license terms. This page explains which licenses govern the use of PNAS content. Users are advised to check each article for its publication license and corresponding distribution policies.

The author(s) retains copyright to individual PNAS articles, and the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (NAS) holds copyright to the collective work and retains an exclusive License to Publish these articles, except for open access articles submitted beginning September 2017. For such open access articles, NAS retains a nonexclusive License to Publish, and these articles are distributed under a CC BY-NC-ND license.

For volumes 106–114 (2009–September 2017), the author(s) retains copyright to individual articles, and NAS retains an exclusive License to Publish these articles and holds copyright to the collective work. Volumes 90–105 (1993–2008) are copyright ? National Academy of Sciences. For volumes 1–89 (1915–1992), the author(s) retains copyright to individual articles, and NAS holds copyright to the collective work.

Authors whose work will be reused should be notified. Use of PNAS material must not imply any endorsement by PNAS or NAS. The full journal reference must be cited and, for articles published in Volumes 90–105 (1993–2008), "Copyright (copyright year) National Academy of Sciences."

Default License for PNAS Articles

Except, as noted above, for open access articles submitted beginning September 2017, authors retain copyright, but grant to PNAS an exclusive License to Publish. Authors and their employing institution or company retain extensive rights for use of their materials after publication in PNAS and for intellectual property. These rights are retained without requiring explicit permission from PNAS, provided the full journal reference is cited and, for articles published in volumes 90–105 (1993–2008), “Copyright (copyright year) National Academy of Sciences.” Users may view, reproduce, or store journal content, provided that the information is only for their personal, noncommercial use.

Anyone may, without requesting permission, use original figures or tables published in PNAS for noncommercial and educational use (i.e., in a review article, in a book that is not for sale), provided that the full journal reference is cited and, for articles published in volumes 90–105 (1993–2008), "Copyright (copyright year) National Academy of Sciences." Commercial reuse of figures and tables (i.e., in promotional materials, in a textbook for sale) requires permission from PNAS.

Authors retain the following rights:

  • The right to post a PDF of their article on their personal website.
  • The right to make electronic or hard copies of articles for their personal use, including classroom use, or for the personal use of colleagues, provided those copies are not for sale and are not distributed in a systematic way outside of their employing institution.
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For other uses by authors, please contact PNASpermissions{at}nas.edu.

Creative Commons License for Open Access Articles

Beginning with papers submitted in September 2017, open access articles are published under a nonexclusive License to Publish and distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDistribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Prior to September 2017, open access articles were published under the default license (exclusive License to Publish). Further distribution or use of content published under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 must be restricted to noncommercial uses, may not be remixed, transformed, or built upon, and must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation, and DOI.

In compliance with funder access policies, all PNAS articles are free online 6 months after publication. Authors who choose the open access option can have their articles made available without cost to the reader immediately upon publication. All content, regardless of funding, is automatically deposited by PNAS in PubMed Central and made free 6 months after publication. PNAS participates in CHORUS.

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